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Marathi

MarathiBackground

An Indo-Aryan language from the Indo-European language family, Marathi is spoken by approximately 73 million people (2007) and is number nineteen on the list of most spoken languages in the world.  In addition to being the official language of Maharashtra, Marathi is also one of the 23 official languages of India and enjoys “Scheduled Language” status in the Constitution of India.

Besides being the official language in Maharashtra, Marathi is spoken to differing degrees in many places, namely Goa, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, as well as Maharashtrian expatriates in Israel and Mauritius.

Usage

Indo-Aryan language academics differentiate between 42 various dialects of spoken Marathi, with the chief dialects being Jhadi Boli, Southern Indian Marathi, and Varhadi, and Standard Marathi being the vernacular favoured by scholars and the print media.  Notwithstanding the vast number of dialects, there exists a high degree of clarity amongst the different vernaculars as the key distinction lies in the accent placement and pronunciation of words.

While Marathi is influenced by many other languages and dialects such as Sanskrit, Prakrit, Maharashti, Apabhramśa, Persian, Arabic, English, and some Portuguese, there exist many organisations with the intention of regulating, promoting, and enriching the Marathi language by replacing loanwords with original Marathi counterparts.

An increasing movement amid Marathi speaking parents at all community levels in large metropolitan areas is to send their children to English schools.  Some individuals are anxious this could lead to the decline of the Marathi language, although these fears seem to be unsubstantiated.  Recently many youngsters are finding it fashionable to revive the old Modi alphabet of Marathi, which was replaced in 1950 by the Marathi version of Devanagari script, Balbodh.

About us

At Language Inc., a professional language service supplier, we are able to assist you with your translation requests. Please visit our website (https://www.language-inc.org/en/services/languages ) to view the list of languages we can translate into and from to assist you to reach your target audience. Whether you need a translation into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa or any other language listed, please feel free to be in contact with us.

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Maltese

MalteseBackground

Maltese is both the national and the co-official language of Malta.  In addition, Maltese is the only Semitic language designated as an official language of the European Union.  Derived from the Siculo-Arabic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family, Maltese was brought to Malta during the period from the end of the 9th century to the end of the 12th century.  Maltese is spoken by nearly 520,000 individuals (2012) on the Mediterranean islands of Malta, Gozo, and Comino, as well as by Maltese communities in Australia, Canada, Italy, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Tunisia. 

Usage

By 1249 the Norman Conquest had evicted all Muslims from Malta. This secluded the dialect from its Arabic foundation, causing Maltese to develop into a distinct vernacular.  This dialect proceeded to grow together with Italian, which it ultimately substituted as official language of Malta in 1934.  Maltese is used for most areas of everyday life, whereas English is favoured in higher levels of education.

Maltese is the only Semitic dialect written using Latin characters.  While the fundamental terminology is based on the original Siculo-Arabic vocabulary, Maltese contains a wide variety of loanwords from standard Italian, Sicilian, English, and French.  Prior to a standardised written Maltese being developed in the late 18th century, official documents and messages were written using French and Italian.  English use in education was encouraged during the British colonial period.
Standard Maltese can be divided into two separate dialects, namely urban varieties and rural varieties.  Urban vernaculars are very similar to Standard Maltese with very few variances.  Conversely rural vernaculars are closer to the Siculo-Arabic origins of Maltese, with antique Semitic structures no longer found in Standard Maltese.

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At Language Inc., a professional language service supplier, we are able to assist you with your translation requests. Please visit our website (https://www.language-inc.org/en/services/languages ) to view the list of languages we can translate into and from to assist you to reach your target audience. Whether you need a translation into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa or any other language listed, please feel free to be in contact with us.

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Malayalam

MalayalamBackground

A member of the southern group of the Dravidian language family, Malayalam is the native language of south west India.  While primarily spoken in the Kerala state, it is also used in the neighbouring states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, and by Malayalam communities in Bahrain, Fiji, Israel, Malaysia, Qatar, Singapore, UAE, and the United Kingdom.

Spoken by nearly 38 million people (2007), Malayalam is the official language of Kerala and the regions of Lakshadweep and Puducherry.  In addition, Malayalam is one of 22 scheduled languages of India, and in 2013 was voted a Classical Language of India.

Usage

Malayalam developed from both Tamil and Sanskrit, and emerged as a separate language at the close of the 13th century.  Prior to this, Old Tamil was used for literary works and the law.  As a result, Malayalam still retains many terms from early Tamil vocabulary and in excess of 80% of scholarly Malayalam is from Sanskrit.  In addition, the Malayalam alphabet has the largest number of characters of all the Indian languages.

Christian missionaries initiated a change in the writing style of Malayalam by assembling dictionaries and converting the Bible into less complex text.  This released Malayalam from the strict Sanskrit rules regarding writing, allowing for increased flexibility in the language and making it suitable for an everyday vernacular.  Although Sanskrit features prominently in academic Malayalam, the level of Sanskrit found in the Malayalam language decreases in direct relation to the level of education. 

Malayalam boasts many different dialects, and each of the thirteen local dialect areas are further divided into sub-dialects dependent on district, social level, profession, and political ideals.  Each dialect and sub-dialect is uniquely influenced by various other languages, and each have different loan words to distinct to one another.

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At Language Inc., a professional language service supplier, we are able to assist you with your translation requests. Please visit our website (https://www.language-inc.org/en/services/languages ) to view the list of languages we can translate into and from to assist you to reach your target audience. Whether you need a translation into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa or any other language listed, please feel free to be in contact with us.

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Lithuanian

LithuanianBackground

Since 1918, Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) has been the official state language of Lithuania, and since 2004 a recognised official language of the European Union. The overall Lithuanian-speaking population amounts to approximately 3.2 million, both in Lithuania and abroad.  Lithuanian is also an acknowledged minority language in Poland, Belarus, Latvia, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia.

Along with Latvian, Lithuanian is an East Baltic language of the Indo-European language family. Lithuanian, believed to be the most conservative Indo-European language, maintains many structures unique to early languages such as Sanskrit or Ancient Greek.  Before variances began appearing between Lithuanian and Latvian in 800 ACE, these languages could be seen as dialects of a single language.

Usage

Appearing in 1547, Catechism by Martynas Mažvydas was the first printed Lithuanian book.  Lithuanian books existed after this but were not regularly obtainable, as literacy through the 18th century was low among Lithuanian people.  After the January Uprising in 1864, the Russian Governor General of Lithuania, Mikhail Muravyov, banned the use of the Latin alphabet and the Lithuanian language in teaching and printing.  Nevertheless, Lithuanian books were still published in East Prussia and the United States and smuggled into the country.  Despite the threat of imprisonment, these book runners helped encourage a growing independence movement that eventually resulted in the sanction being lifted in 1904.  Lithuania now boasts a monument erected in honour of book smugglers.

Language conservation and eradication strategies have been established by the Lithuanian government in an attempt to remove loanwords from the language and replace it with new equivalent words.  Unfortunately, many English terms, particularly to do with technology, have already become accepted and are now included in the Lithuanian lexicon.

About us

At Language Inc., a professional language service supplier, we are able to assist you with your translation requests. Please visit our website (https://www.language-inc.org/en/services/languages ) to view the list of languages we can translate into and from to assist you to reach your target audience. Whether you need a translation into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa or any other language listed, please feel free to be in contact with us.

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Malagasy

MalagasyBackground

Malagasy is the official language of Madagascar, while the Merina dialect is considered the national language.  A member of the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian language family, Malagasy is spoken by roughly 18 million people (2007) in Madagascar, as well as the nearby Indian Ocean islands of Comoros, Réunion, and Mayotte. In addition, emigrant Malagasy communities can be found in France, Québec, Belgium, and Washington DC.

As the Malagasy alphabet does not contain a ‘c’ and all words end in a vowel, Madagascar is not actually a Malagasy term.  The equivalent name would be “Madagasikara”, however, amongst the Malagasy, the island is called Nosin-dambo, Izao tontolo, or Ny aninvon’ ny riaka.

Usage

Malagasy has two principle dialects.  Merina is spoken throughout Eastern, Central and Northern Madagascar, while Sakalava is spoken in Western and Southern Madagascar.  The differences in these vernaculars are primarily in the pronunciation of words, and not the words themselves.  Malagasy also contains many words borrowed from Bantu languages, Arabic, French, and English.  The younger generations of Malagasy use a colloquial combination of Malagasy and English, referred to locally as Malenglish.

The original writing system used for Malagasy was an Arabico-Malagasy script called Sorabe, although this was mainly used for astrological and magical texts.  In 1823, Welsh missionaries working in Madagascar changed the writing system to one using Latin alphabetization.  1835 saw the first Malagasy book using Latin characters, the Bible, published. 

Malagasy is the language used in all community schools for all subjects up until the fifth grade, and through high school for subjects such as history.

About us

At Language Inc., a professional language service supplier, we are able to assist you with your translation requests. Please visit our website (https://www.language-inc.org/en/services/languages ) to view the list of languages we can translate into and from to assist you to reach your target audience. Whether you need a translation into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa or any other language listed, please feel free to be in contact with us.

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