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Polish (Język Polski, Polszczyzna)

PolishBackground

Polish is the official language of Poland, one of the official languages of the European Union, and the national language of Polish groups the world over.  After the 1945 Yalta Conference deliberating the rezoning of war-ravaged Europe, many Polish nationals found themselves within the borders of different countries; resulting in numerous people claiming Polish as second language in the European countries of Belarus, Lithuania, Ukraine, Czech Republic, Germany, Latvia, Romania, and Slovakia.  Sizeable Polish communities can also be found in Australia, Brazil, Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States.  This brings the final tally of Polish speakers to over 40 million globally.

A member of the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic group of the Indo-European language family, Polish has the most speakers within the West Slavic Group, and is the second most extensively spoken Slavic language after Russian.  Poland is considered the most linguistically standardised European country; with almost 97% of Polish residents confirming Polish as their primary language.

Usage

Citizens in the various districts all speak variations of “Standard” Polish.  While these versions are considered Polish dialects, the differences seem to be minor; first-language speakers can easily understand each other across these dialects, and second language speakers might not even be able to tell the vernaculars apart.  Polish is said to have four or five main dialects, depending on who you consult and whether they consider Silesian a Polish dialect or a distinct language.  Further smaller regional vernaculars are differentiated due to county borders, wealth, lifestyle, and residential location. 

During the past century Poland has been heavily influenced by other countries at various times, as evidenced by the large number of loanwords that exist in the Polish language.  Although Polish has borrowed freely from Latin, Czech, Italian, German, Hungarian, Turkish, Yiddish, Mongolian, and English, these copied words have always been altered to reflect Polish pronunciation and spelling.

About us

At Language Inc., a professional language service supplier, we are able to assist you with your translation requests. Please visit our website (https://www.language-inc.org/en/services/languages ) to view the list of languages we can translate into and from to assist you to reach your target audience. Whether you need a translation into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa or any other language listed, please feel free to be in contact with us.

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Lithuanian

LithuanianBackground

Since 1918, Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) has been the official state language of Lithuania, and since 2004 a recognised official language of the European Union. The overall Lithuanian-speaking population amounts to approximately 3.2 million, both in Lithuania and abroad.  Lithuanian is also an acknowledged minority language in Poland, Belarus, Latvia, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia.

Along with Latvian, Lithuanian is an East Baltic language of the Indo-European language family. Lithuanian, believed to be the most conservative Indo-European language, maintains many structures unique to early languages such as Sanskrit or Ancient Greek.  Before variances began appearing between Lithuanian and Latvian in 800 ACE, these languages could be seen as dialects of a single language.

Usage

Appearing in 1547, Catechism by Martynas Mažvydas was the first printed Lithuanian book.  Lithuanian books existed after this but were not regularly obtainable, as literacy through the 18th century was low among Lithuanian people.  After the January Uprising in 1864, the Russian Governor General of Lithuania, Mikhail Muravyov, banned the use of the Latin alphabet and the Lithuanian language in teaching and printing.  Nevertheless, Lithuanian books were still published in East Prussia and the United States and smuggled into the country.  Despite the threat of imprisonment, these book runners helped encourage a growing independence movement that eventually resulted in the sanction being lifted in 1904.  Lithuania now boasts a monument erected in honour of book smugglers.

Language conservation and eradication strategies have been established by the Lithuanian government in an attempt to remove loanwords from the language and replace it with new equivalent words.  Unfortunately, many English terms, particularly to do with technology, have already become accepted and are now included in the Lithuanian lexicon.

About us

At Language Inc., a professional language service supplier, we are able to assist you with your translation requests. Please visit our website (https://www.language-inc.org/en/services/languages ) to view the list of languages we can translate into and from to assist you to reach your target audience. Whether you need a translation into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa or any other language listed, please feel free to be in contact with us.

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Malagasy

MalagasyBackground

Malagasy is the official language of Madagascar, while the Merina dialect is considered the national language.  A member of the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian language family, Malagasy is spoken by roughly 18 million people (2007) in Madagascar, as well as the nearby Indian Ocean islands of Comoros, Réunion, and Mayotte. In addition, emigrant Malagasy communities can be found in France, Québec, Belgium, and Washington DC.

As the Malagasy alphabet does not contain a ‘c’ and all words end in a vowel, Madagascar is not actually a Malagasy term.  The equivalent name would be “Madagasikara”, however, amongst the Malagasy, the island is called Nosin-dambo, Izao tontolo, or Ny aninvon’ ny riaka.

Usage

Malagasy has two principle dialects.  Merina is spoken throughout Eastern, Central and Northern Madagascar, while Sakalava is spoken in Western and Southern Madagascar.  The differences in these vernaculars are primarily in the pronunciation of words, and not the words themselves.  Malagasy also contains many words borrowed from Bantu languages, Arabic, French, and English.  The younger generations of Malagasy use a colloquial combination of Malagasy and English, referred to locally as Malenglish.

The original writing system used for Malagasy was an Arabico-Malagasy script called Sorabe, although this was mainly used for astrological and magical texts.  In 1823, Welsh missionaries working in Madagascar changed the writing system to one using Latin alphabetization.  1835 saw the first Malagasy book using Latin characters, the Bible, published. 

Malagasy is the language used in all community schools for all subjects up until the fifth grade, and through high school for subjects such as history.

About us

At Language Inc., a professional language service supplier, we are able to assist you with your translation requests. Please visit our website (https://www.language-inc.org/en/services/languages ) to view the list of languages we can translate into and from to assist you to reach your target audience. Whether you need a translation into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa or any other language listed, please feel free to be in contact with us.

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Croatian

CroatiaBackground and status

Croatian (Hrvatski) is the official language in Croatia, as well as in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, Croatian is recognised as one of the official languages of the European Union.  Approximately 5.5 million people across Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, the Romanian county of Caras-Severin, and the Croatian diaspora speak Croatian as first language, while a further 1.25 million people in Slovenia claim it as a second language.

Croatian (part of the Serbo-Croatian language group) is a Western South Slavic language, with three principal vernaculars, namely Čakavian, Kajkavian, and Štokavian.  Serbo-Croatian language is the collective term used for Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin.  These languages are mutually intelligible, as they are all based on the same dialect of Štokavian. 

Usage

Up until 1850 there was no standardised written form of Croatian.  To rectify this, several Croatian and Serbian authors and linguists teamed up to create a standardised written form that was based on the widely used Štokavian dialect.  Nowadays, the current standard language is outlined in several different linguistic publications, as well as grammar books and lexicons prescribed by the Ministry of Education for the school syllabus.  However, there is no monitoring council that regulates the correct usage of the Croatian language.  While many loan words from other languages have found their way into the Croatian language, an attempt is being made to replace these loan words with new and unique Croatian words. 

Native Croatians view having their own distinct language as an integral aspect to their national identity.  For this reason, the Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Literary Language policy was passed in 1967, granting the Croatian language more independence and allowing it to be considered a language distinct to that of the Serbo-Croatian languages.

At Language Inc., a professional language service supplier, we are able to assist you with your translation requests. Please visit our website (https://www.language-inc.org/en/services/languages ) to view the list of languages we can translate into and from to assist you to reach your target audience. Whether you need a translation into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa or any other language listed, please feel free to be in contact with us.

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Burmese

BurmeseBackground and status

Burmese is the official language of Myanmar and is also spoken across Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.  A member of the Tibeto-Burman group of the Sino-Tibetan language family, Burmese is first language to an estimated 32 million people (according to a 2007 survey), with a further 10 million people speaking it as a second language.  While widely known as Burmese, the Constitution of Myanmar formally recognizes the English name of this language as the Myanmar language.

The rounded appearance of the Burmese script (known as ca-lonh) is contributed to the usage of palm leaves as antique writing material; straight line script would have been produced by a torn part of the leaf.

Usage

Burmese dialects used in the Irrawaddy River Valley are chiefly uniform as they all use modifications of Standard Burmese; although vocabulary and pronunciation differs slightly, the dialects share common clarity.  The semantic differences occur in the vocabulary choices concerning relationships. Upper Burmese speakers distinguish between maternal and paternal sides of the family, while Lower Burmese speakers do not.  In addition, certain vernaculars use the same first person pronoun for men and women alike, whereas others use different pronouns for each gender.  Furthermore, spoken Burmese takes the speaker’s status and age relative to the audience into consideration, with pronouns conveying degrees of esteem and politeness level. 

Burmese uses two different forms of language, applicable only to decorum and not with district or speech.  The Literary High form, or Written Burmese (mranma ca) is used mostly in literature, newspapers, and formal speeches; and Spoken Low form (mranma ca ka) is used in colloquial daily conversation, television, and comics.  While the Literary form remains in use in written contexts such as literary and scholarly works, the latest tendency has been to use the everyday spoken language more widely.

At Language Inc., a professional language service supplier, we are able to assist you with your translation requests. Please visit our website (https://www.language-inc.org/en/services/languages ) to view the list of languages we can translate into and from to assist you to reach your target audience. Whether you need a translation into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Afrikaans, Zulu, Xhosa or any other language listed, please feel free to be in contact with us.

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